Cryptographic hashes
A cryptographic hash function is a procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixedsize bit string, such that an accidental or intentional change to the data will change the hash value. The ideal cryptographic hash function has four main properties: it is easy to compute the hash value for any given message, it is difficult to find a message that has a given hash, it is difficult to modify a message without changing its hash, and it is difficult to find two different messages with the same hash.
A list of Cryptographic hashes

MD4 hash
MD4 is a message digest algorithm designed by Professor Ronald Rivest of MIT in 1990. It implements a cryptographic hash function for use in message integrity checks. The digest length is 128 bits. The algorithm has influenced later designs, such as the MD5, SHA and RIPEMD algorithms. MD4 is also used to compute NThash password digests on Microsoft Windows NT, XP and Vista.

MD5 hash
In cryptography, MD5 (MessageDigest algorithm 5) is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128bit hash value. An MD5 hash is typically expressed as a 32 digit hexadecimal number.

RIPEMD160 hash
The 160bit RIPEMD160 hashes (also termed RIPE message digests) are typically represented as 40digit hexadecimal numbers. RIPEMD160 (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest) is a 160bit message digest algorithm (and cryptographic hash function). It is an improved version of RIPEMD, which in turn was based upon the design principles used in MD4, and is similar in performance to the more popular SHA1.

SHA1 hash
SHA1 is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128bit hash value. SHA1 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check the integrity of files. An SHA1 hash is typically expressed as a 32 digit hexadecimal number.

SHA256 hash
SHA256 is a cryptographic hash function with a 256bit hash value. It is related to SHA1 (which only has a 128bit hash value). An SHA256 hash is typically expressed as a 64 digit hexadecimal number.

SHA512 hash
SHA512 is a cryptographic hash function with a 512bit hash value. It is related to SHA1 (which only has a 128bit hash value) and SHA256 (which has a 256bit hash value). An SHA512 hash is typically expressed as a 128 digit hexadecimal number.